Blerim Abedini, Institute for Security Studies and Development, ISSD-NM

Until WWII we may see that companies had private initiation. After WWII nationalization of companies was evident in most of the Balkans as unitarianism versus pluralism which we may see in Greece and Turkey. Furthermore, Communism is based on the national property of companies versus private and state properties which we find in capitalist economies.

1934- Podravka Company. The brothers Marijan and Matija Wolf founded the company on 14 June 1934. At the time the firm was a fruit factory. In 1947 the company was nationalized. In 1949, Podravka started producing fruit jam. In 1952 new products as candy, mustard, ketchup, fruit brandy and canned meat, instant soups; In 1959 Vegeta was released. Today the condiment is sold in more than 40 countries. Podravka was privatized in 1993 and transformed into a stock company. The trade of Podravka shares at the Zagreb Stock Exchange started in 1998 with 130 million euros gained from the stock market. In 2009 a financial scandal led to the arrest of several board members under charges of corruption 35 million Euros in company funds. In 2010, Podravka products were produced in the United States for the first time. In 2013, the company opened a Food innovation center in cooperation with the Ruđer Bošković Institute.

1935- Tigar Tyres was founded in 1935 in Pirot as a workshop for the manufacture of rubber products and all kinds of footwear. Since 2007, it is owned by the world’s second-largest tire manufacturer Michelin. In 2007, the French company Michelin became a major shareholder of the company. In February 2008, Michelin bought the remaining shares of Tigar Tyres for $47 million. With this acquisition, Michelin would become 100 percent the owner of the company by 2010. Tigar Tyres received the “Aurea” award, as the best investment in Serbia for 2014. As of April 2016, the company had around 3,000 employees. From 2013 to 2016, Tigar Tyres has invested 215 million euros in the factory’s modernization and construction of new facilities. According to the 2018 financial report the company has 3,388 employees and it posted an annual profit of €40.86 million for the 2018 calendar year. Tigar Tyres finished the 2018 calendar year as the fourth biggest Serbian gross exporter with 388.9 million euros worth of exports.

1935- Kelebek Mobilya was founded to manufacture plywood for aircraft wings in 1935. It manufactured plywood with Kelebek brand in Haliç, Istanbul, until 1986. It opened the modular furniture factory built-in Düzce in technical cooperation with the world’s best project groups in 1978 as one of Europe’s most modern and largest manufacturing plants. Kelebek Mobilya continues to manufacture special wooden components for furniture, kitchen, bathroom, and living room sets using advanced technology in 40,000 square meters of the indoor area on a 186,000-square meter plot in Düzce. Doğtaş bolstered its already strong position in the furniture industry by acquiring Kelebek Mobilya in 2012. Following the merger, Doğtaş operated as Kelebek Furniture, Kelebek Kitchen & Bathroom, and Lova brands, and with the department of project works under the name Doğtaş Kelebek Mobilya.

1936- The Queen Giovanna Hospital  is a university hospital in Sofia, the capital of Bulgaria. Named after Giovanna of Savoy, Tsaritsa of Bulgaria, and wife of Boris III, the hospital was opened in 1936 and employs a total of 212 academic and non-academic specialists. The hospital has 24 clinics and departments.

1936- The first Hungarian Grand Prix was held on 21 June 1936 over a 5-kilometer (3.1-mile) track laid out in Népliget, a park in Budapest. The Mercedes-Benz, Auto Union, and the Alfa Romeo-equipped Ferrari teams. However, politics and the ensuing war meant the end of Grand Prix motor racing in the country for fifty years. The first Grand Prix saw 200,000 people. Other notable occasions in Budapest include first Grand Prix wins for Damon Hill (in 1993), Fernando Alonso in 2003, the first Grand Prix winner from Spain. In 2001, Michael Schumacher equaled Alain Prost’s then-record 51 Grand Prix wins at the Hungaroring. In 2020, Lewis Hamilton won the Hungarian Grand Prix for the eighth time. At the 2013 Hungarian Grand Prix, it was confirmed that Hungary would continue to host a Formula 1 race until 2021. The track was completely resurfaced for the first time in early 2016, and it was announced the Grand Prix’s deal was extended for a further 5 years, until 2026. In 2020 the contract was also extended one year further to 2027.

1936- Întreprinderea Optică Română (“Romanian Optical Enterprise”), often abbreviated by the acronym IOR, is a major optics company established in 1936 in Bucharest. IOR produces military and civilian-grade optics and associated equipment for export and domestic production. The company is known in North America particularly for its riflescopes (the LPS 4×6° TIP2), binoculars, and other sporting optics, which often accompany Romanian military equipment sold on the North American market, such as the PSL rifle. In 1941, when Romania entered the war alongside Nazi Germany, IOR was militarized and was tasked to produce mainly for the Romanian Army. Accordingly, Romania designed the PSL rifle as a substitute for the SVD Dragunov, and IOR was tasked with developing a scope for the rifle as a replacement for the Russian PSO-1. The result was the LPS 4×6° TIP2 telescopic sight, which became the standard Romanian sniper riflescope. Since the 1980s, the company engaged in optical electronics, lasers, metrology, and thermal vision. The company is SR EN ISO 9001 certified. Since the early 2000s, I.O.R. has started to produce very extravagant tactical scopes with technical solutions not often found by other brands. Among such innovations were: 35mm and 40mm main tubes to achieve greater elevation range, 6×, 7×, 8×, and 10× magnification, and parallax adjustment in the form of a ring on a central tube.

1937- The company was established in 1937. From a small plant for the manufacture of pencils and pastels. TOZ Penkala (Zagreb pencil factory). The company’s operations were restarted in 2016, after a brief period of inactivity. Thanks to the successful collaboration with engineer Krunoslav Penkala, son of Slavoljub Penkala, the company entered the tradition of Penkala in the business and introducing of the product under that trademark in 2000 and the change of the company name in 2001.

1937- Heraklion International Airport “Nikos Kazantzakis”  is the primary airport on the island of Crete, and the country’s second busiest airport after Athens International Airport. It is a shared civil/military facility. The airport first opened in March 1939. The first airplane (a Junkers Ju 52) carried the first passengers to the site. During the Second World War operations ceased, but in the fall of 1946 traffic resumed, introducing the DC-3 aircraft. From 1968 until 1971, the runway was extended to 2,680 meters and a new terminal and other facilities were constructed, essentially making it a new airport. On March 18, 1971, the first charter flight from abroad (British Airways) operated at the airport.

1937- Budaörs Airport is located in the 11th district of Budapest. Now serving general aviation, it was once Hungary’s only international airport. Planning for the airport started in 1935, and in 1936, design competitions for the terminal and main hangar were held. Construction started the same year, and the terminal was completed in 232 days, being opened on 20 June 1937. Ferihegy was ready in 1943, but bombing during World War II caused extensive damage to it. It continued its service as the primary international airport until repairs at Ferihegy were completed. Ferihegy was reopened on 7 May 1950. Budaörs is now an active general aviation airport, with many light aircraft and gliders based there. It is home to several recreational- and flight training businesses, as well as of the Goldtimer Foundation, which restores and regularly gives passenger rides on its vintage aircraft, like the Lisunov Li-2, Polikarpov Po-2, Rubik R-18 Kánya, and the Rubik R-11b Cimbora.

1937- Arad International Airport has located 4 km (2.5 mi) west of Arad. There are a hangar and a terminal, from the military campaign from 1917. Here, on 14 July 1912, a big meeting took place when Aurel Vlaicu, a pioneer in Romanian aviation, returned from Aspen Vienna and he was seen by his fellow citizens as a national hero. As a result of some negotiations that took place in order to build a new airport, on 30 May 1935 the civil municipal aviation give the land from the Ceala suburb where the constructions will start for building the infrastructure. The official inauguration of the new airport took place on 14 November 1937. In June 2014, a contract was signed for the extension. The terminal has a total surface of 5000 sqm, 13 access gates to the auto-loading/unloading ramp, and 4 access gates to the airplane loading/unloading ramp. Its capacity for depositing (arrival, departure) is 300 to/day and the traffic capacity (arrival, departure) is 50 to/hour. The parking area of a surface of 8430 sqm can offer parking spaces for 32 cars and 5 cargo trucks, having also 2 oil separators.

1937- Utva Aviation Industry is a Serbian manufacturer of general aviation aircraft with headquarters in Panchevo. Utva was founded on 5 June 1937 in Zemun, since 1940 when is located in Panchevo. In March 2017, Serbian defense company Yugoimport SDPR became the majority stakeholder of Utva with around 96% of total shares. The Iraqi Air Force is the first operator of the Lasta 95 ordering 20 aircraft with another 16 optional, in 2010. The Kobach (Sparrowhawk) is a light military aircraft currently in development whose first flight took place in 2013. The Sova (Owl) is an aircraft currently in the final certification under CS.23 in General (4 seats, MTOW-1200kg) and Utility (2 seats MTOW-1050kg) whose first flight took place in 2018.

1937- Kardemir is a Turkish steel producer, “Karabük Iron and Steel Works”. Its main plant is located at Karabük in the Black Sea region of Turkey. Construction of the complex started in 1937 and finished in two years. Having functioned as a state-owned company for decades, Kardemir was privatized in 1995. Kardemir burns coal in Turkey. As an integrated steelworks emissions are higher than steel produced at electric arc furnaces. They also own Karabük coal-fired power stations.

1938- Radio Televizioni Shqiptar (RTSH)  founded in 1938, it operates several radio and television channels, over a domestic transmitter network as well as satellite. The international television service via satellite RTSH Sat was launched in 1993 and is aimed at Albanian-speaking communities in Kosovo, Serbia, North Macedonia, Montenegro, and northern Greece, plus the Albanian diaspora in the rest of Europe. The beginnings of RTSH date to the creation of Radio Tirana on 28 November 1938. The first Albanian radio station was launched by King Zog I and Queen Geraldine Apponyi.

1938- ERT began broadcasting in 1938 as the Radio Broadcasting Service of Greece. Prime Minister Samaras proposed returning ERT to service immediately, which was rejected. On 17 June 2013, following an appeal by ERT’s employees to the Council of State (Greece’s highest administrative court), the Council suspended the government’s decision to interrupt broadcasting and shut down ERT’s frequencies. As of 11 June 2015, ERT started broadcasting again. and

1938- The legal predecessor of VIDEOTON was founded in 1938. Videoton, or officially VIDEOTON HOLDING Ltd. is a private, Hungarian-owned company group. It is based in Székesfehérvár, Hungary, and offers contract manufacturing and production-related services to industrial companies. Its main profile is electronics manufacturing service. It ranks 32nd globally and 4th in the EU according to the 2019 EMS-ranking of Manufacturing Market Insider magazine. The estimated value of the group (consisting of 21 member companies) is 527 million Euro according to the 2019 survey of Forbes. The company has 11 locations, 9 in Hungary, 1 in Bulgaria, and 1 in Serbia.

1939- The Copșa Mică works were two factories in the Transylvanian town of Copșa Mică, Sibiu County, Romania. Sometra, established in 1939, produced non-ferrous metals, particularly zinc and lead, through smelting; production has been suspended since 2009. Carbosin, dating to 1935, specialized in carbon black and shut down in 1993. The two were the town’s principal employers but combined, they made it among the most polluted places in Eastern Europe. Soot from Carbosin encased Copșa Mică in a black covering, while metals from Sometra suffused the air, water, and soil, leading to serious health effects on surrounding residents, vegetation, and wildlife.

1940- The Royal Institute of Albanian Studies (1940-1944) was a scientific and cultural institute that preceded the Academy of Sciences of Albania. Founded during the Albanian Kingdom (1939–43), it had four commissions: Moral and Historical Sciences, Physical Mathematical and Natural Sciences, Language and Literature, and Arts. The head of the Institute was Albanian writer and linguist Ernest Koliqi, whereas its general secretary was an Italian priest and historian Giuseppe Valentini. Notable members of the institute included Eqrem Çabej, Aleksandër Xhuvani, Father Anton Harapi, Karl Gurakuqi, Lasgush Poradeci, Namik Resuli, Father Lazër Shantoja, Filip Fishta, Father Justin Rrota, Ilo Mitkë Qafëzezi, Anton Paluca, Xhevat Korça, Kolë Kamsi, Eqrem Vlora, Sotir Kolea, Vangjel Koca, and Dhimitër Beratti.

1940- Vasile Lupu High School Group was one of the first organized anti-Soviet groups in Bessarabia on June 28, 1940. It was formed by the students and some teachers of the Vasile Lupu high school in Orhei. After a series of small actions, such as writing anti-Soviets slogans on public walls (“Death to the Stalinist occupiers!”, “Go home, barbarians!”, “Down with the executioner Stalin! Bessarabia to Bessarabians!”, “Long live the Romanian nation!”). In January 1941, were arrested most of its members.

See more,