Companies in the Balkans-VIII (1945-1950)

Blerim Abedini, Institute for Security Studies and Development ISSD-NM

During this period of time, established companies in the Balkans are divided into companies with production activities belonging to the Soviet Union, Yugoslavian companies, Capitalist companies, and those of Third World States. We may conclude that Greece companies are highly ranked in the Balkans, Yugoslavian companies are well organized for the needs of the defense military, and companies inside the Soviet Union have been ranked low due to planning in production.

(1945 year) founded ‘Galenika’. It was a major pharmaceutical drug-maker in the Balkans with exports to Europe, Africa, and Asia. From 2008 to 2010, Galenika rapidly accumulated debt. By the 2010s, most of the domestic pharmaceutical market has shifted in foreign hands. In November 2017, Luxembourg’s investment fund ‘Aelius’ purchased 93.73% of the company’s shares, for a total of 16 million euros. In October 2018, former officials of the company were sentenced for damaging the company for multimillion-euro bills.

(1945 year) “Elan” is a Slovenian company, specializing in the production of sporting goods. It is best known for its skis and snowboards, also for sailboats from (9 to 15 m) length, motor yachts, and equipment for sports facilities. The brand became better known in the late 1970s when Swedish alpine skiing ace Ingemar Stenmark won three consecutive World Cup overall titles on Elan skis. In 1978, the production of license-built DG gliders was started. The Slovenian state organization for privatization gave approval for the sale of the “Elan” to “Merrill Lynch International” and “Wiltan Enterprises Limited”.
(1945 year) “Konstruktor inženjering” is a Croatian construction company. Konstruktor was the first construction company in Dalmatia. Since 2006 “Konstruktor inženjering” is a holder of ISO 9001:2000 Certificate.

(1947 year) “Tehnika” is a Croatian company, active in the civil engineering and construction industry. According to the 2010 annual report, the company employs 1281 persons.“Tehnika was founded in former Yugoslavia, with the scope of operations in construction work, in the domestic market, and abroad. In 2010 and 2011, the company suffered a substantial decrease in the volume of works caused by the shrinking economy. Http://

(1947 year) Viadukt is a Croatian civil engineering company, specialized in the areas of bridge, tunnel, and road engineering. The company’s works include motorways, bridges as “Bajer Bridge”, “Sava River Bridge” and the “Pelješac Bridge”; tunnels as “Tuhobić Tunnel”. Http://

(1947 year)The “Nikšić–Podgorica” is a railway connecting Montenegro’s capital Podgorica with cities Nikshich, Belgrade, Bar, Shkoder, and Bilecha. The railway has primarily been used for the transport of Bauxite, Aluminium Plant, and passengers. In 2006, thorough reconstruction and electrification of the line begun, with a consortium of Czech companies (OHL ŽS “Brno”, AŽD and EŽ) and was completed in 2012, which cost €72 million. Link,

(1948 year) “Centralna Energo Remontna Baza” is one of the largest enterprises in the Balkans focused on large electric power facilities maintenance in Bulgaria. “CERB” has specialized in manufacturing, diagnostics, maintenance, and repair of all kinds of rotating electrical machines and transformers. The Bulgarian enterprise maintains the electrical facilities of Bulgarian National Electrical Company (NEK EAD), Electricity System Operator (ESO), Energo-Pro, ČEZ, Mini Maritsa Iztok, LUKOIL Neftochim Burgas. It implements projects in the largest energy plants in the Balkans, including Public Power Corporation of Greece, METKA- Greece, ELEM Macedonia, KEK Kosovo, Elektroprivreda BiH- Bosnia and Herzegovina, Energo-Pro in the Czech Republic;

(1948 year) “EI Niš” ( Electronics Industry Nish) is a holding company with headquarters in Serbia. It declared bankruptcy in 2016. It originated in 1948 from the foundation of the Institute for the Production of Radio Sets and Roentgen Machines, “RR Niš.” However, during the 1990s most of the company business collapsed, due to the war in Yugoslavia. In 2016, after decades of insolvency, it declared bankruptcy.

(1948 year) “Sloboda Čačak” is an ammunition and manufacturing company that was established by the Yugoslav government by 7,000 employees. During the NATO bombing, one of its facilities was destroyed and later in 2016 reconstructed. The Government of Serbia invested 30 million euros from 2010 to 2017.

(1949 year) “Tirana railway” in Albania was connected to other cities including Vlora, Durres; In 2013, the station was closed for passenger and freight transport, and was demolished. The Tirana station was moved to Vlora in 2013 and later renovated as “Kashar station” in 2015. A new station is planned for building as a multi-functional terminal for railway, tram, and bus.

(1949 year) “Trade Union International of Food, Tobacco and Beverage Industries, and Hotel, Cafe and Restaurant Workers” was founded in Bulgaria. In 1997 the “Trade Union International of Agroalimentary, Food, Commerce, Textile & Allied Industries” was formed by the merger of the “Trade Union International of Agricultural, Forestry and Plantation Workers, Trade Union International of Food, Tobacco, Hotel and Allied Industries Workers, Trade Union International of Workers in Commerce, Trade Union International of Textile, Leather” and “Fur Workers Unions”.

(1949 year) “Csepel”. In 1947 Hungary bought the organization “Steyr 380” truck designed in Austria’s “Csepel” lorries and engines. In 1949 an automobile factory was established in the NIK (“Heavy Industry Center”). The first 3 Csepel D-350 was ready on 3 April 1950. During 1968–1975 the evolution of Comecon (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance) changed the way Csepel operated. In 1975 the Csepel began production of the RÁBA engine by rejecting the MAN license. From 1976–1980 the factory-built 1000 Volvo C202 Laplanders. In 1996 Csepel went bankrupt. In 2007 a D344 EZF lorry arrived. In 2009 a D420 fire-engine body built.

(1949 year) “Electroputere(“Electropower“) is a Romanian company. It is one of the largest industrial companies with produced 2,400 diesel locomotives, and 1,050 electric locomotives for domestic railways, Bulgarian, Chinese, and Polish railways. Also, 1,105 locomotives were delivered between 1972 and 1991 to Bulgaria, China, Greece, Iran, Poland, United Kingdom, and Yugoslavia.

“Electroputere” modernized multiple V3A trams between 1997 and 2002. “Electroputere” are currently manufactured of: Industrial electrical parts, Industrial electric motors & Converters, Heavy-duty power transformers, Railway and Urban vehicles. Also divisions: Forging and molding metal, Equipment repairing, and Tool’s modernization.

(1949 year) “Milan Blagojević – Namenska” is a chemical manufacturing company, specialized in the defense industry, founded by the Yugoslav government. During the 1990s, the company has deteriorated due to the Yugoslav Wars and sanctions imposed on FR of Yugoslavia. According to the company’s management, from 2001 to 2017, the company has invested more than 50 million euros in the modernization of technological processes. The company offers a variety of products for the defense industry as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, ball powders, and dynamite applications. The notable products are shotshell, rifle, pistol and revolver powders, double base powders, military powders, such as aircraft and antiaircraft, mortar shells, mortar shells-extend range, artillery ammunition, ignition powder, and grenade launchers, conventional powder charges, sport, and other special powders. In addition, it offers consulting, modernization of process technology, design and engineering, transfer of technology, and training personnel services.

(1947 year) “PPT Petoletka” is a manufacturer of hydraulics and pneumatics, in Serbia. During the 1980s, the factory had nearly 20,000 employees. “Prva Petoletka” designed hydraulic systems for many of the hydroelectric power plants in Yugoslavia, the hydraulic drive on a class of massive roto-excavators for surface mines, drive- and control systems for the sets of the National Theatre in Belgrade, an electro-hydraulic system for a lifting of the main dome of the Temple of Saint Sava in Belgrade, hydraulics for a modern second-generation tank (the M-84), an inclined marine railway installed in the shipyard in Kladovo, landing gear for Boeing, etc. Prva Petoletka was an important exporter, delivering its products to over 30 countries on several continents. Petoletka cooperated with major world companies such as Boeing, Bugatti, Lucas, Bendix, Daimler, Martin Merkel, Pol-Mot, Orsta Hydraulik, Wabco Westinghouse, Linde Guldner, Ermeto, and Zahnrad. In January 2016, a new business entity under the name PPT-Namenska was registered and took most of Prva Petoletka’s former employees. As of 2017, its main contractor is Russian “Kamaz”.

(1947 year) “Yugoimport–SDPR” was a company for the import and export of defense-related equipment, for the needs of the Yugoslav defense industry. Until 1990 “Yugoimport” built many military and civilian objects in many countries including airports, hospitals, command posts, etc. Today the company also provides weapons design, consulting, construction, and engineering services. SDPR opened a new “Complex Battle System” factory in Velika Plana, Serbia for producing combat vehicles. Some best-known licenses were: the M-87 Orkan MLRS’s technology to Iraq and other countries. Production licenses for Azerbaijan to produce grenade launchers, Algeria and India for small arms and ammunition production. In November 2011, a contract was signed in Algiers forming a joint-venture for the construction of three arms factories. The latest ammunition production license was the “Made in India” program worth 2.8 billion Euros.

(1949 year) The “Jožef Stefan Institute(IJS)” research institute in Slovenia. The research areas are physics, chemistry, molecular biology, biotechnology, information technologies, reactor physics, energy, and environment. The institute was founded by the State Security Administration of Yugoslavia for atomic weapons research. “IJS” today involved in a wide variety of fields of scientific and economic interest.

(1950 year) “Hidroconstrucţia” is a Romanian company in the construction of dams and hydropower stations. The company has constructed hydropower stations in Romania, Algeria, Germany, and Iran with a total of 6,411 MW.

(1950 year) “S.C. IPIP”- the Engineering and Design Institute for Oil Refineries and Petrochemical Plants is a Romanian company for the development of the petroleum, hydrocarbon processing, and petrochemical industries. Later, in the ’70s, IPIP had duties of designing new refineries of large capacity and high complexity, for the processing of the domestic and imported crude oil. “IPIP” is approved to the following Quality Management System Standards: ISO 9001:2000, EN ISO 9001:2000, SR EN ISO 9001:2001. IPIP offers today a full range of services from the conceptual phases through on-stream operation, post-start-up assistance, and training. IPIP is focused on developing 3D design using Intergraph PDS software.

(1950 year) “Valjaonica Bakra Sevojno” is a copper manufacturing company in Serbia and the largest copper manufacturer in the former Yugoslavia, while aluminum production was a secondary activity. In 1990, it was reorganized and operated as “Valjaonica Bakra i Aluminijuma- Sevojno”. By 1991 is an independent business enterprise. In 2003, the company had 2,000 employees. In 2017 “Valjaonica Bakra Sevojno” has produced 22,600 tonnes of copper from the domestic copper mining complex RTB- Bor. As of 8 March 2019, “Valjaonica Bakra Sevojno” has a market capitalization of 6.54 million euros.

(1950 year) State Production Farms (“Devlet Üretme Çiftliği- DÜÇ”) is the name of a group of state-owned farms in Turkey. They were founded on 1 March 1950 as a model to Turkish farmers. In 1984 they were reorganized within TIGEM, a subsidiary of the Ministry of Agriculture of Turkey.