Blerim Abedini, Institute for Security Studies and Development ISSD
Some important historical and political events related to establishing companies in the Balkans are:
Albania- When Fan S. Noli became Prime Minister in 1924, then Ahmed Zogu exiled to Serbia, in December 1924. After a while, Ahmed Zogu backed by the Kingdom’s army of Serbian-Croatian-Slovenian, and for this reason, Fan S. Noli fled to Italy. In 1926 Italy and Albania signed the First Treaty of Tirana, which guaranteed Zogu’s political position which will not be considered by A. Zogu. On September 1, 1928, Albania became a Kingdom(monarchy). In 1934 year after signed trade agreements with Greece and SCS-Kingdom, Italy threatened Albania.
Croatia- Josip Broz(with nicknames Tito, Walter) in March 1927, wrote an article complaining about the exploitation of workers in the factory of the railway in Smederevska Palanka. In July 1927, Broz was arrested along with six other workers, and imprisoned at Ogulin. After his sentencing, his wife and son left Croatia and returned to the Soviet Union where she fell in love with another man. On October 3, 1929, King Alexander I, renamed the Kingdom as “Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovens-Yugoslavia”. Meanwhile, Josip Broz was accused of attempting to escape, and therefore transferred to Maribor prison, where he was held for several months. He was finally released from prison on 16 March 1934, but even then he was subject to orders, which require him to not leave Kumrovec(Birth town), and to report daily to the police station. http://bit.ly/3qWP9YY
Germany- On July 4, 1926, the NSDAP (Nazi) party was formed in Weimar. On March 19, 1927, bloody battles between Communists & Nazis happened in Berlin. On March 5, 1928, Hitler’s National Socialists won the majority vote in Bavaria. On September 22, 1929, Communist and Nazi factions were clashed again in Berlin. On Sep. 14, 1930 Nazis took 107 seats in German parliamentary elections. On Jan. 30, 1933, German President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Adolf Hitler as Chancellor(high rank). On June 13, 1933, the German secret state police (Gestapo) was established. On Aug. 1, 1933, the death penalty was declared. On June 30, 1934 is believed that were murdered more than 1,000 political opponents in a few days, and Hitler declared that he had acted as the “Supreme Lord of the Law”.
Italy- On Nov. 5, 1925, Benito Mussolini disbanded Italian socialist parties. On Nov. 5, 1932, Mussolini freed 16,000 criminals. March 19, 1933, Italy’s dictator- Benito Mussolini proposed a pact with Britain, France, and Germany. Despite strong Italian influence, King Zogu I, refused to renew the 1926s Treaty of Tirana. For this reason, Mussolini sent a fleet of warships and colonized Albania. http://timelines.ws/
Companies in the Balkans (1930-1933)
(The year 1930) Tvornica Autobusa Zagreb (TAZ) was a Croatian bus and truck manufacturer in Dubrava. The most famous product was TAZ Dubrava 14. Production of buses, on a wooden frame, started in Zagreb in 1930. In 1950, cooperation was established with the factory FAP in Serbia and Famos (Fabrika Motora Sarajevo) in Bosnia. In 1954 the factory TAZ was transferred to the district Dubrava in Zagreb. In 1969, the company founded FAP Famos Beograd which included FAP, Famos, and TAZ, as well as Sanos from Skopje- N. Macedonia. Collaboration has been with the company Daimler-Benz. In 1980 the factory employed 1,200 people and produced an average of 500-600 vehicles, by exporting to China, Finland, Egypt; In 1991, when Croatia gained its independence and disconnected from Yugoslavia, production began to decline and has been stopped completely.
(The year 1930) Liniile Aeriene Romane Exploatate de Statul-LARES(Rumanian Air Line Exploited by the State). LARES was formed to replace the SNNA and as a strong Rumanian airline company with the capability of operating in the scheduled international air services. Rumania signed an air agreement with Poland and Czechoslovakia. On 1 June 1930 P.L.L. LOT from Poland scheduled to open-air service. But as Rumania did not possess competitive equipment, the LARES had duty to purchase suitable aircraft. The Rumanian Government suggested an extensive program for the development of national and international air routes and the purchase of new civil aircraft. It proposed the operation of the following air service by either State or private airline companies: Bucuresti-Arad; Galati-Chishinau; Bucuresti-Bazargic; Galati-Istanbul; Bucuresti-Warszawa; and Bucuresti-Praha. In the period 1933-1935, the company took delivery of just a few aircraft. In August 1933, LARES purchased one Stinson JR Model S, YR-GVB. In 1935 the first commercial domestic aircraft built in Rumania- the ICAR M 36 Comercial. It was a high-winged, single-engine aircraft with a ventilated cabin for eight passengers and a cockpit for two crewmembers with dual control. From 1935 to 1940, it had clocked a flying time of 216 hours and 39 minutes. It was withdrawn from use by WWII. Http://bit.ly/3pQvEQx
(The year 1930) Thessaloniki Airport and formerly Mikra Airport is an international airport. It opened in 1930 and was the second-busiest airport in Greece in terms of flights served and the third-busiest in terms of passengers served in 2016, with over 6 million passengers. It is the main airport in Northern Greece. The Athens–Thessaloniki route is the tenth busiest in the EU with 1.8 million passengers. A modernization and expansion project for the runway began in 2005 and was finally completed in March 2019. The runway entered service on 11 September 2020. It has an estimated cost of €179 million. https://www.skg-airport.gr/en/
(The year 1931) Ta Nea(“The News”) is a daily newspaper published in Athens. It was owned by Lambrakis Press Group (DOL), which also published the newspaper “To Vima”. The assets of DOL were acquired in 2017 by Alter Ego Media S.A.(Societe Anonyme). The newspaper began publishing in 1931 under the title (Athens News). After the occupation of Greece-WWII, changed its name to “Ta Nea”. ‘Ta Nea’ has been Greek’s best-selling newspaper for decades. The circulation peaked at around 200,000 copies in the 1990s, but by 2008, the circulation had declined by more than half. It is a traditional center-left friendly newspaper and has strongly supported PASOK, the Greek Socialist Party in the 1980s and 1990s. Http://tanea.gr
(The year 1931) Scînteia(“The Spark”) reemerged as the official voice of the Communist Party of Romania on August 15, 1931, being published clandestinely in Bucharest until 1940. In the wake of King Michael’s coup of 23 August 1944, Romania withdrew from the Axis(Germany, Italia, Japon) and joined the Allies(Great Britain, the United States, and the Soviet Union). Scânteia(“The Spark”) has continued by publishing of editorials against the body of communist politics. After WWII, During Communist Romania (early of 1948), the newspaper changed its political course and was the main medium of the regime. Today, the building goes by the name Casa Presei Libere (“The House of the Free Press”). ScînteiaTineretului(“Youth’s Spark”) began its edition in November 1944. In the year 1989 Scînteia’s(“The Spark”) assets were taken by the post-communist newspaper “Adevarul”. Https://adevarul.ro
(The year 1932) The “Minerva” magazine was a literary magazine, which started weekly and later was published monthly, directed by journalist Nebil Çika. By well-known Albanian publicists such as Tajar Zavalani, Odise Paskali, Ikbale Çika, and Stefan Shundi. It was the most well-known magazine of modern life of Albania at the time and had a relevant influence on the cultural life of Albania. Thirty-eight issues were published between 1932-1936 years until publication ceased. The magazine focused mainly on the literary critique of fictional books.
(The year 1932) “Electrecord” a Romanian record label. It was the only record label in Communist Romania which was transformed into the national recording company within ‘socialist doctrine’. Electrecord had to balance the government’s demands with those of listeners and musicians. Despite the poor quality of recordings and the lack of information on disc covers, “Electrecord” released a number of collection discs. The most successful were the Formaţii de muzică pop. In 1990, Electrecord lost market share. Most discs released by Electrecord after 1990 were either greatest hits albums extracted from older recordings or remastered versions of LPs. In June 2017, Electrecord released the album Songbird by pop singer-songwriter NAVI. http://www.electrecord.ro/
(The year 1932) The “People’s Hospital of Athens” a hospital, in the fight to address health problems. The primary purpose of the establishment of the hospital was the treatment of the needy suffering from common diseases and at the same time the education of the doctors, the students of the Medical School, and nurses. The administrative services, the pharmacy, the food warehouse, and the laboratories of the Pathology Clinic were installed. The AD Surgery Clinic and the surgeries with sterilization were installed. Also, there were the AD Pathology Clinic and the amphitheater in October 1933. The strength of the beds of the Clinic was more than 100. The operation of the First Surgery Clinic began in June 1934. Under the ministry of Al. Koryzi was granted “30,000,000 drachmas” for improvements to the hospital. During the occupation by the German troops, the hospital was ordered by the Germans and the patients were transferred elsewhere. The Clinics, Departments, and Projects-laboratories that worked after the war of 1940, from 1948 to 1960 were: Radiology, Ophthalmology, ENT and Cardiology, Gynecology, Donation, AD Teaching Pathology Clinic, Urology Clinic, Orthopedic Clinic, Sterilization; The following departments have been operating since 1960: Hemodynamic Laboratory, Secondary Educational Surgery Clinic, Hemodialysis Unit, Clinical Pathophysiology (PF), Department of Kidney Transplantation and Surgery Kidney, Intensive Care Unit (ICU), Allergy Division, Nuclear Medicine, Nephrology, Department of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (SFOPEK), Myocardial Unit (MEMF), Department of Patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Nursing Service Directorate and Administrative Directorate. Today it houses various Departments, Laboratories, Clinics, and a one-day hospital. https://www.laiko.gr/
(The year 1933) D Grubu”(“Group D”) is a collective of artists in Turkey. The group is considered Turkey’s first contemporary art movement. The group is the fourth fine arts collective established in Turkey after the ‘Ottoman Painters Society’, ‘Fine Arts Union’, and ‘Independent Painters and Sculptors Association’. Their aims were to reject Impressionism, instead by entering Cubists and Constructivists. In the 9th exhibition in 1941, the number of artists increased to 16. “Group D” continued to exist in solidarity between artists until the 15th exhibition in 1947 year.