BY BLERIM ABEDINI- INSTITUTE FOR SECURITY STUDIES AND DEVELOPMENT (ISSD)
Political decisions in the leadership of the Balkan states are important for increasing foreign investment. External investment requires a stable political and economic situation. Regional agreements between the Balkan states provide many benefits as economic progress, reduction of unemployment, cooperation in the field of regional projects, financial assistance from banks for financing projects that are related to the production of renewable energy such as solar and wind. Regional co-operation is a factor for bringing successful investors who will also take care of the ecosystem in the Balkans.
The Balkans as the epicenter of developments by media and political powers is in contention of international negotiations for sustainable solutions. The fabricated political vacuum has attracted many economic, infrastructure and geopolitical projects.
The economic transition in the Balkans has attracted various international companies that can disrupt the market if it is not managed by the political elite of the new Balkan states.
The political elite have to study the adoption of the project by the international provider or the company. The debate on a preliminary political decision will decide on the legitimacy of the project by the implementer, which in this case is essential for its standardization. This approval would contribute to the fulfillment of ecosystem conditions to climate change such as rainfall amounts, earthquake areas, mountainous areas (relief), tourist centers, traffic network and other conditions. The political elite of the respective state will appreciate that, the above factors will not affect the progress of the society.
The market economy as a guide has a strong impact on the global sphere, directing businesses to profitable activity. However, the political decision has a hand in the reorientation of projects because of corruption, which will undermine public and bilateral relations in the Balkan regions.
Almost the first two decades of this century, renewable energy in Macedonia has failed with the implementation of the solar panel program, which supported Usaid. Many municipalities then failed in these projects, though renewable energies are imperative for the times we live because of maintaining the ecosystem’s balance and small non-renewable energy reserves. So from this we realize that the former Macedonian political elite did not manage such projects, which then had to be imposed on the municipalities for its approval and implementation. Macedonia has not invested in its tourism during the transition period, but it has sold a number of hotels, as is the case with the Mavrova recreation center. It did not repair the aerial cableway from Tetovo to Sunny Hill(Popova Shapka), the most popular recreational and sports center in Macedonia. On another occasion, the World Bank withdrew from the financing of the ‘Lukovo Pole’ hydro power plant, while the EBRD – the European Bank, withdrew from ‘Boshkov Most’ project, for the purpose of protecting the Balkan rivers. By “EuroNatur” foundation, they have denied that by saying, “hydropower plants are not compatible with biodiversity conservation and have no place in protected areas like the Mavrovo National Park”.
EBRD- European Bank for Reconstruction and Development projects.
In Serbia, satellite records from 2001 to 2011 have shown land degradation and erosion, which have emerged from exploatations at the coal basin- Kulubara in Serbia. It is because of explosive mines that have been made during exploitation by Serbian public enterprises. It is concluded that this basin contains half a billion tons of coals, including urban areas over coal reserves.
Major developments in Macedonia are important with the arrival of the new political elite, as well as their assessments of renewable energies.
Deputy Prime Minister for Economic Affairs of Macedonia- Kocho Angjushev agrees that the future of energy is in renewable sources and he adds, “Any debate on renewable resources poses a problem – how to install this system without raising the price of electricity that , consumers have to pay. But the hope is,as the production of renewable energy appliances increases, which reduces solar power prices. Mr Angjushev stated that, “Five years ago, a megawatt photovoltaic has cost 2 million euros and now costs 560,000 euros, which explains that renewable resources can become commercial sources of energy, which is good news for Macedonia.” On the other hand, coal reserves in Macedonia are very small, so “Oslomej” is out of use, and in Bitola in the future, only one module for coal will be used in its plant instead of the previous three modules.
The new law on energy, which is being drafted by the Macedonian Parliament, will allocate free national lands to investors who build photovoltaic energy stations, such as experiences made in the United States, England destined for farmers. The state power producer ELEM is also planning to build a photovoltaic station in Oslomej. It is expected to produce 14.5 gigawat hours of electricity and cost 7 million euros. One of its three planned projects includes ELEM, which will improve conditions at the Bogdance wind park and build a new wind plant that will generate a 27 megawatt capacity.
Prof. Dr. Konstantin Dimitrov of Macedonia’s Energy Efficiency Center (MACEF) says, “If we build in Chebren and Galishte and plus ten hydro power plants in Vardar, we will have a big step towards using renewable resources.” He also recommends the use of wind, and says – “The next ten years, the wind will be used in many other countries, because in Macedonia, magnetic wind turbines, which generate electricity from winds, can be used for small speed of winds, by half a meter in the second. ” The People’s Republic of China has already begun to produce these magnetic turbines.
Dr. Dimitrov(MACEF) proposal for Chebren and Galishte hydro power plants.
Calculating the small budget of a Balkan state, the designated state government, does not have enough funds to carry out projects from foreign investors. An example that the government of Bulgaria has managed to implement its projects is through bilateral agreements or debts that can last over 10 years. Bulgaria’s government in this case uses benefits as EU members. So it will borrow from EU adequate banks, which is a guarantee for debt repayment. This is an example by which the government of Bulgaria manages to finalize the work of the second nuclear reactor to repay the debt to the Russian company.
By the time we live, the market economy requires infrastructure for road, rail, and opening of new harbors. The EU economy needs roadways and railways that will connect the Greek, Bulgarian and Adriatic harbors. With this, ships will also have new cruise destinations. So a strong common European logistics for markets means, higher economic progress.