By Blerim Abedini- Center for Security Studies and Development- Macedonia (CSSD)
Balkans are important geopolitical part of Europe where reforms over corruption are running slowly. According to analyzes for a year made by UNODC- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime about corruption in the Western Balkans every tenth company has paid bribe. The survey on corruption in the Western Balkans by statisticians of UNODC, obtain 12,700 companies for a period of one year. On average, it amounted to 880 euros. The greatest burden of payment on Balkan are construction with 45% and transport with 44.3% of the total given. Cash was present in 35.7%, 33.6% in food, and the rest in another kind gifts and services.
Is current topic in bilateral talks that affects the interests of every community in the World. Governments around the World have serious approach to Climate Change issue and would invest through national budget as prevention caused by global warming. We know that climate changes have brought various negative effects on communities and their lifes around the World.
In other side some governments of the developing countries are mining the process of environmental protection, by getting decisions with high consequences to the environment and increasing global warming. An approval of the project by taking bribes or corruption by government officials will cause consequences to inhabitants of that environment by downgrading all factors of normal living as socioeconomic, environmental, political, etc.
Scientists who are studying environmental issues are showing finger at the man as main anthropological factor for global warming. Statistical reports show us that climate change in recent decades tends devastating.
Coastal areas are at risk from destructive winds. The destructive tornadoes could result negative in the big World’s city centers as it is New York, which is a lesson for political leadership and international organizations with headquarters over there.
The destruction of oil reserves is increasing global warming in the Near East. It faces the contamination of drinking water and other consequences for living in the coming years. In addition, we see increase on migration of the Near East population around the World now and for three decades back.
The destruction of the forest is the general threat and, it is evident for countries in developing as in Africa and Latin America. In other side the disappearance of fauna for commercial interests also is issue, as is the case with elephants, tigers, bears and other animals protected by international conventions. Also we have in consideration and ice regions as it Arctic and Antarctic and consequences by mining in those regions.
The production of industrial materials, metallurgical smelters is characteristic of developing countries. Environmental pollution with chemical substances from these countries will cause dangerous diseases that do not heal easily for people of middle class and lower. Also, emissions of greenhouse gases are concerned within old cars.
The situation in Africa with corruption is important because governments around the World see the highest danger inside this continent. So Africa is now the heart of World and environment has needed to prevent further exploitation. We may conclude by some reports through organizational research for Climate and corruption that African people are against bribes in many business investments. But few citizens loyal to governments would get bribe for foreign investment even if the Climate Change and global warming is in question!
By an article published in Sunday Times: Business Times, two examples provide corruption ways over natural resources and its impact on Climate Change.
The first is exploitation of natural resources. By published research of Aksel Sundström, a PhD candidate at the University of Gothenburg, Sweden, he has found that bribery among South African governments and their fishing inspectors have contributed to overfishing by getting involved to corruption for exploiting natural resources.
The second research is the corruption impacts over climate change initiatives.
Between 2010 and 2012, governments around the World provided more than $30-billion to fund projects that adapt or mitigate the impacts of climate change. This financial support obtained 100 countries. In other side Transparency International reported that the 10 most climate-vulnerable countries in the world (which receive a large amount of funding) obtained very low scores on the group’s Corruption Perceptions Index 2014, indicating that public sector corruption in these countries was perceived to be high.
According to analyzes for a year made by UNODC- United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime about corruption in the Western Balkans every tenth company has paid bribe. Kosovo with 1787 euro, Serbia- 935 euro, Albania- 904 euro, Monte Negro- 830 euro, Macedonia- 689 euro, Croatia- 395 euro and Bosnia- 327 euro.
The survey on corruption in the Western Balkans by statisticians of UNODC, obtain 12,700 companies for a period of one year. On average, it amounted to 880 euros. The greatest burden of payment on Balkan are construction with 45% and transport with 44.3% of the total given. Cash was present in 35.7%, 33.6% in food, and the rest in another kind gifts and services.
We may have different approach to Climate Change as main factor for future of this World. We may see that world powers as United States and Russia have different approach to this issue. The situation in Arctic region is very dangerous if they can not find political agreement for preventing this ice land from exploitation. We are seeing last events in the Syrian territory where many oil reserves are destroyed by war airplanes.
Also other World powers have responsibility to act on the better future for all citizens in the World. The World is one and, any environmental damage is common for all inhabitants.
Note: Analyses and research articles are products of the Center for Security Studies and Development- Macedonia. All Rights Reserved.